UAVCAN has been made available quite some time ago, in order to bring CAN to drones. The CAN bus is renowned for it’s extreme reliability and is thus attractive for application in drones. However, to the day I think it is fair to say that only few UAVCAN devices have become available, and those which are, are clearly for the professional market, at least price-wise. So, I set out to change that, and started the UAVCAN for Hobbyists project. The initial driving force was in fact that I wanted to get rid of this dammed I2C, which we use for connecting an external magnetometer. Soo annoying. Thus, I thought, let’s build a UAVCAN-to-I2C adapter and connect that to the magnetometer, so that the long wires would be CAN now. The project however quickly went farther than this.
The project presented me with challenges which made me considering to quit more than once. At this point I want to express my deepest thanks to Pavel, for the tremendous work he put into UAVCAN, and especially for not giving up answering my questions. Thank you so much, sir! 🙂
The project consists of several pieces, which I will present, and make available, below:
If you want to build one yourself, please make sure to inspect the chapter Build Information.
First user demonstrating a successful flight using UC4H components:
0. Usage Information
The UC4H nodes are working well. There are of course always little things which could be improved and changed, but overall I’m very satisfied. It’s working, I like my UC4H-ized copter, and in this sense the project has accomplished its goals. I’d like to leave some comments on its applicability.
In principle, the UC4H nodes can be used in any UAVCAN network. That’s the idea of UAVCAN. However, in practice the options boil down to ArduPilot (and PX4 I think), with these additional restrictions (to the best of my knowledge!):
You should flash at minimum from master. The stable firmware versions are not recommended. Master supports the GPS, magnetometer, ESC and actuator UAVCAN messages, but it does not support the UC4H power brick, the ESC telemetry, and the STorM32 gimbal controller. With ArduPilot master you can use the UC4H GPS-magnetometer and UC4H ESC-actuator nodes out of the box.
This is a fork of ArduCopter master of 12. Aug. 2017, and has compiled binaries for v2 (Pixhawk), v3 (Solo, Pixhawk2), and v4 (Pixracer) flight controllers. It has full support for the UC4H power brick nodes, UC4H ESC-actuator node telemetry, as well as for the STorM32 gimbal controller. Thus, if you want to make best use of the potential of the UC4H project, you want to flash BetaCopter3.6dev-v005 (download the .px4 binaries from here: https://github.com/olliw42/storm32bgc/tree/master/betacopter/betacopter36dev-v005/ArduCopter). The limitation is that this is only for Copter and for v2, v3 and v4 flight controllers.
The „feature matrix“ thus looks like this:
The UC4H SLCAN adapter is of course independent on any flight controller support, and is in fact also independent on UAVCAN, and thus can be used in any CAN bus network.
I. UC4H GPS-Magnetometer Node
The UC4H GPS-magnetometer node provides a bridge for connecting any of the widely and relatively cheaply available ublox M8 GPS modules to the CAN bus. If the GPS module also has a magnetometer on-board, which is often the case, then also the magnetometer can be connected to the UC4H GPS-magnetometer node.
You may ask: Why should one want to do this? I did it for several reasons:
- I really was annoyed by the I2C wires. I found them to be the most unreliable connections, repeatedly causing me troubles.
- No issues with running out of UART ports on the flight controller anymore.
- It leads to a cleaner wiring. Instead of 7 wires only 4 are needed. Also, fewer wires go to the flight controller, especially if more UAVCAN units are used. This can help with damping flight controller vibrations, and avoids having to deal with many different connector types.
- It’s just cool. 🙂
The connection diagram for the Hobbyking module looks as this:
However, from the scheme it should be clear that any M8 GPS or GPS+compass module can be turned into a full-fletched UAVCAN GPS+compass module. And this at very modest costs. This is what DIY is about, right.
In the above scheme I was using a little PCB, which I layouted. The module may look difficult to build, and for those who never have done SMD soldering it probably is, but when using solder paste and a hot-air station (good ones, such as the 858D, are available for ca $35) it is really much simpler to do than you might think now.
The module can also be build using cheaply and widely available STM32F103C8/CB and CAN transceiver modules. The result of course doesn’t look as snugly, but it is incredibly simple, and cheap, and works equally well. For instance, I’ve ordered this STM32F103C8 development board for $1.80, and this SN65HVD230 CAN transceiver module for $1.89. The cost for converting a GPS module into a UC4H GPS-magnetometer node can thus be as low as $3.70. Cool, eh.
Depending on the GPS magnetometer module it can be necessary to add two pull-up resistors to the I2C lines. This is e.g. the case for the mentioned Hobbyking module. A general scheme and a practical build is shown here:
Please consult also the chapter V. Build Information below.
II. UC4H Power Brick
The UC4H power brick is a substitute for modules such as the common 3DR power module, or the ACSP4/5/7 modules by AUAV/mRo. It combines measuring the voltage and current of the battery, and a 5.3 V/3 A power source for powering the copter electronics.
The UC4H power brick has some top-notch features:
- Uavcan: Well, obviously, that’s its major point. It emits the UC4H-specifc GenericBatteryInfo message at adjustable intervals.
- Low-noise Switch Regulator: I use the LT8610A which is good for 42 V and 3.5 A. It’s a member of the LT8610 family of regulators, which is also used by the ACSP series of AUAV/mRo.
- Hall Current Sensor: No lousy resistor shunt, Hall sensors are state-of-the art and should be standard. I use the ACS770, which is the successor of the well-known ACS758, which has been widely used in the drones area (see e.g. here), and offers slightly better specs. The ACS780/1 could also be worth a consideration, but it is a bit „trickier“.
- LDO Stabilized Voltage for the Hall Current Sensor: This is actually a point which I think has been overlooked in the design of available power modules using the ACS7xx sensors (e.g. here and here): The ACS7xx sensors are ratiometric. This means that when its supply voltage varies also the current sensor output signal varies proportionally. Thus, if the ACS7xx is directly powered from the 5.3 V source, as it is usually done, then any significant power drawn from the 5.3 V source will result in a drop of the measured current value, since the voltage will drop. In my tests a draw of 2 A led to a drop from 5.3 V to 5.0 V or 6%, and the current on the main line will be measured incorrectly by 6% – which is quite a lot. In the UC4H power brick this is overcome by using an extra LDO regulator for sourcing the ACS7xx sensor, ensuring most precise current measurement.
- Precise Charge Calculation: This is another unique feature. Since the UC4H power brick has it’s own microcontroller, it can determined the consumed charge (mAh) much more precisely than would be possible otherwise. This is so because it can measure the current at a much higher rate and thus track current fluctuations much more precisely. Specifically, the node’s firmware measures the current at 1 kHz, which is several 100 times faster than with the currently available power bricks.
I do have the UC4H Power Brick in permanent operation in my test copter since several months now, and I didn’t had a single incident so far. I’m lov’in it :).
III. UC4H ESC-Actuator Node
The UC4H ESC-actuator node provides PWM or DSHOT signals for connecting ESCs or servos (= actuators). It offers up to six independent PWM/DSHOT outputs, which are controlled by the uavcan.equipment.esc.RawCommand data type. The servo functionality is not yet implemented.
A major feature of the node is to provide telemetry data about the status of the connected motors to the flight controller. For each enabled output the node emits a uavcan.equipment.esc.Status data type. For DSHOT and telemetry capable ESCs (KISS, BLHeli_32) the telemetry data from the ESC are polled at an adjustable rate (default 5 Hz), and filled into the fields of the uavcan.equipment.esc.Status data type, yielding real-time data on temperature, voltage, current, and rpm for each motor.
In combination with suitable ESCs, the UC4H ESC-actuator node thus offers these advantages:
- Uavcan: Well, obviously, that’s the major point. The cool thing about the concept presented here is that any ESC can be used, making available to UAVCAN a wide selection of excellent and cheap ESCs.
- Fast update rate and low latency: ArduCopter emits UAVCAN ESC commands at rates of up to 400 Hz. Due to the nature of the CAN bus, and the UC4H node in DSHOT mode, the latency varies from ca. 160 – 300 us. This is significantly shorter than the 1-2 ms for the ordinary PWM signals.
- Real-time telemetry data: The availability of telemetry data for each motor individually is certainly another strong feature, which may open new possibilities not available to hobbyists before.
The node can be build using the CAN transceiver and STM32F103 development boards mentioned in the previous chapters. A scheme is shown below. Also, the PCB of the UC4H GPS-magnetometer node can be used, in which case up to two PWM/DSHOT outputs are offered. Lastly, I have designed UC4H ESC mini PCBs, which are only 21×14 mm in size, and which each supports up to two ESCs (and DSHOT and telemetry of course):
A brief description of the parameters of the node and few other info relevant for how to use and build the node, can be found here: https://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showpost.php?p=39144246&postcount=509
Please consult also the chapter V. Build Information below.
IV. SLCAN Adapter
The SLCAN adapter is an indispensable tool for checking and debugging the proper functioning of a UAVCAN network. Currently it is also required for setting node parameters.
In simple terms, it is a USB-CAN adapter, which is connected to the CAN bus on the one side and via USB to a PC on the other side. On the PC the UAVCAN GUI Tool, which is freely available as part of the UAVCAN project, provides a nice software for doing a lot of things, such as spying the messages on the CAN bus, plotting data, setting node parameters, and so on.
Within the UC4H project, the SLCAN adapter can be build in two ways. Firstly, I’ve designed a simple PCB board, which is relatively compact, and quite handy. It also allows one to select different powering schemes for the CAN bus, and provides the fuse & diode protection in accordance with the standard.
Alternatively, the SLCAN adapter can be build using cheaply available standard components. For instance, I’ve bought this: STM32F103C8 development board at $1.80, CAN transceiver module at $1.89, USB-TTL adapter at $1.02. Total cost: $4.71. That’s very acceptable, IMHO. The connection scheme is:
Please consult also the next chapter V. Build Information.
V. Build Information
Building the UC4H nodes is not very difficult, but currently few stumbling stones exist, which makes it a bit more difficult than it needs to be. This chapter aims at collecting some useful info.
- Great build report of a DIY UC4H SLCAN adapter and GSP/mag node by rcgroups user ThonTillman, here.
- Build report of a DIY ESC/actuator node by rcgroups user mike_kelly, here and posts before.
- DIY builds: Note that the connection schemes for the DIY builds shown in the above are for the suggested CAN transceiver module. They may be, and mostly likely will be, different for other CAN transceiver modules, see e.g. here and here and here.
- GPS/Mag node: Only ublox M8 GPS units are supported. Also, the GPS must be manually configured to a baud rate of 57600 bps, using e.g. ublox‘ u-center. Sorry for the inconvenience; this will change in a future firmware.
- GPS/Mag node: Both the PCB and the DIY build shown in the above require firmware version v0.20 and later to work.
- DIY SLCAN adapter: USB-TTL adapters often use the CP2102 chip, like the one suggested in the above does. The SLCAN firmware works with a baud rate of 1000000 bps, which the CP2102 cannot handle by default. It must be configured; the procedure is however simple, see here.
- UAVCAN GUI Tool: In order to be able to decode the UAVCAN messages on the CAN bus, this tool must know about the definitions of the UAVCAN messages. The GenericBatteryInfo message used by the power brick is not part of the standard set, and thus needs to be made aware to the tool by copying the message definition file to a particular folder, as explained at the end of this post here.
I’ve reworked the layouts of the print boards of the GPS-mag node, power brick and SLCAN adapter, removing some tiny bugs and generally making them „better“. So I could promote them to version v1.0.
UC4H GPS-Magnetometer Node v1.0
UC4H Power Brick v1.0
UC4H SLCAN Adapter v1.0
Go to the github repository: github repository.